The problems of the reproductive health of the population, motherhood, and childhood acquire at the present stage a special medical and social significance. This importance is due to the fact that the preservation of the reproductive health of the population ensures the birth of healthy children. The main purpose of health care agencies and institutions in the provision of treatment and preventive care for children is the preservation and strengthening of their health and, as a consequence, the reduction of infant and child mortality and disability, which are of socio-political importance and determine the level of development of society and health care.
Back in the 1930s, the Soviet government decided to open departments for the protection of motherhood and infancy. This was determined by the unfavorable economic and social conditions of the population, the high morbidity, and mortality of children and adolescents, and the shortage of pediatricians. Across the country, including in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, infectious diseases, dystrophies, vitamin deficiencies, rickets, severe chronic diseases of the digestive tract and kidneys were widespread among the children’s population, thousands of children were observed with heart defects. Thus, in the post-war years, a new pediatric faculty was organized at the Krasnoyarsk State Medical Institute.
The history of the pediatric faculty at the Krasnoyarsk Medical University begins in 1958.  In 1958, only one children’s hospital functioned in Krasnoyarsk, on the basis of which the department of pediatrics was established under the leadership of associate professor Margarita Peretokina. At that time, the department was headed by leading doctors who knew childhood diseases: assistants Etna Markovna Kotik, Faina Grigorievna Evsiovich, Elena Vasilyevna Vagina. Since the institute needed to train not only medical but also pedagogical personnel in the field of pediatrics, Petr Georgievich Podzolkov, the first rector of the KSMI, decides to invite already trained specialists. So in 1961, the candidate of medical sciences comes to work. Jean Jozefovich Rapoport, in 1961 – Ivan G. Shilenok, in 1963 – Konstantin Vladimirovich Orekhov. In the same year, she returned from Moscow after graduating from full-time graduate school, a graduate of KSMI Lyubov  Gulman. During this period, the first pediatric departments were created at the faculty.
The Department of Children’s Diseases of the Faculty of Medicine and the Department of Conscious Education was established on the basis of the Regional Hospital No. 1, the head of which was appointed Candidate of Medical Sciences. J.J. Rapoport.

The Department of Hospital Pediatrics of the KSMI was established under the guidance of the Ph.D., associate professor K.V. Orekhov on the basis of the City 100-bed children’s hospital, down the street Pesochnaya. The main scientific direction of the department: a newborn baby in health and disease. Today the department successfully implements the grant “Happy childhood without tobacco smoke”.
In 1963, a course of pediatric surgery was established at the department of faculty surgery, which was headed by MD, Prof. V.F. Glivenko was appointed VP for the course.

Since 1970, new faculties of the faculty have been intensively created. The fifth independent Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases was headed by the Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor L.А. Gulman. The scientific theme of the department is largely determined by the needs of practical health care, the epidemiological situation in the Krasnoyarsk Territory and is aimed at developing an early diagnosis of infectious diseases, criteria for determining severity, studying pathogenesis, and improving specific, pathogenetic, etiotropic therapy.

In 1971, the Department of Surgical Diseases of the Pediatric Faculty was established under the guidance of Ph.D., Professor Boris Grakov. The base of the department was the regional oncologic dispensary, and later the city hospital №1. From 1973 to 2002 it was headed by the Honorary Professor of the KrasSMA, MD, Academician of the Academy of Natural Sciences A.N. Orlov. He was one of the first in Russia to begin developing problems of biomedical ethics.

Since 1973, the primary postgraduate education of graduates of medical institutes was introduced – an internship in pediatrics, pediatric surgery, and later – pediatric oculists, ENT – doctors, psychiatrists, gynecologists, and pediatric infectiologists.

In 1975, the Department of Internal Diseases of the Pediatric Faculty was established under the guidance of MD Professor Veniamin Medvedev (1975-1979), who made a great contribution to the development of the problems of gastroenterology. He was one of the first in the city of Krasnoyarsk to introduce methods of gastrobiopsy and morphometry in the diagnosis of diseases of the stomach. Under his leadership, completed the master’s theses of V.V. Kharlamov, O.F. Lyubchenko, L.V. Zhukov. Later he headed the department of the Research Institute of Gastroenterology in Zaporozhye, currently, he is a professor in the Department of Therapy in Vladimir. Since 1979, the department is headed by MD, Prof. E.I. Kharkov.

Since 1980, one of the leading strategic directions of health care reform in Russia has been the policy of prioritizing the development of preventive care for children and adolescents. The training of highly qualified specialists in rendering primary health care to the child population is carried out at one of the graduating clinical departments of the KraSMU – the department of polyclinic pediatrics and the propaedeutics of children’s diseases with a course of postgraduate education. The department was organized in 1987, headed by Ph.D., associate professor V.P. Radionov (one of the first graduate students of Professor K.V. Orekhov).

The Department of Children’s Diseases of the Medical Faculty was established in 1988 under the guidance of Ph.D., Professor Efim Isaakovich Prahin, a student of J.-J. Rapoport.  Since 2008, in connection with the reorganization of the university, the staff of the department became part of the department of polyclinic pediatrics and propedeutics of children’s diseases.

Over half a century, the faculty has trained more than 7,000 practitioners in practical healthcare. Graduates of the faculty work in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Perm, Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Tyumen, Kemerovo, Irkutsk, Chita, Amur regions, Primorsky Krai, Yakutia, Buryatia, Tuva and outside Russia.
The Faculty of Pediatrics is not only a forge of pediatric personnel. Scientists of the pediatric faculty carry out the mission of authorized representatives of the pediatric science of Russia. Their successes in solving the problems of preventing and reducing the morbidity and mortality of children, in improving the methods of diagnosing and treating the most common childhood diseases in Siberia and in the Far North are well known. Scientists of KrasSMU have studied the destructive effect of severe natural stressors and made clear recommendations on creating such living conditions in which negative effects can be minimized or eliminated.

In recent years, faculty scientists have become full members of many academies, they have entered the international level of integration of scientific and academic research with scientists and teachers of higher schools in Japan, the United States, Belgium and others. Krasnoyarsk citizens take part in organizing international forums. The scientific internship of scientists and the exchange of students and graduate students are being activated. The exchange of experience in diagnostics, treatment, organization of medical care for children, professional training of future pediatricians and participation in international exhibitions and fairs is expanding and deepening.